Okay, I’m not an expert by any means, but I’ve been on this TMS healing roller coaster for four years now, so I can at least tell you what I’ve learned. Not everything is TMS - however, structural issues or injuries that should have healed in due time, but hasn’t, IS. This is an important distinction. We’re never going to go through life without symptoms or pain and we wouldn’t, because pain is a signal to ACT. So, if you hurt your arm, shoulder leg, neck, etc...it should heal, it’s when it doesn’t and residual pain continues that you can suspect TMS. For instance, I had a separated shoulder - a real injury - but once the healing should have occured, it didn’t and in fact, took 6 months, that’s when TMS took over. Another case in point: I incurred a wasp sting about 6 weeks ago that should have healed within days, but took over 3 weeks! That’s not normal, but TMS came in and kept me riveted to that stupid sting. Why? Because, at that point, I was dealing with some repressed emotions, which came up in therapy, that with processing resulted in healing the sting. Also, if you have some disease passed down, that’s NOT TMS, such as RA, Diabetes, and the like, but I do know that TMS work can help control those diseases. I also think that if pain that should have gone away hasn’t, you could also be conditioned to feeling that pain and as Steve says, if you expect pain, you’ll get pain. It’s all about retraining your brain to expect pleasure, not pain, and not to send danger signals when there is no danger. I think you can have back pain from time to time, say when you’ve worked out aggressively or carried something too heavy for you - that’s normal and should go away within a few days; however, when it sticks around and continues to bother you for days, weeks, months, years on end, that’s NOT normal. Or, if it healed and then years later, pain comes back. That is how you know it’s TMS and you can then do the work. Also, the symptom imperative results in your pain moving from one spot to another, trying to keep you distracted. When it moves, this is excellent! It means it knows you’re onto it; however, again, if you have unresolved supressed emotions or traumatic memories that need processing, it will continue to try and distract you. I have processed a LOT of emotions and memories and still have pain - BUT it’s a shorter duration, not as intense, and keeping active helps my brain rewire itself. I know, that in due time, (25 years of TMS is not going to go away in days, weeks, months, or maybe even years) I will rewire my brain such that chronic pain will no longer be in my life. This has taken me years to finally realize. Also, the fear and crutches we use just keep the ruse up, since it reinforces to the brain that we still need protecting. When we can let go of the fear and the creams, meds, oils, patches, body work, etc..., then the brain can rewire itself to expect calm and pleasure, not anxiety and pain. Sarno had it right about eventually getting rid of the “bandaids” and allowing the brain to do its own healing. Natives here, do I have this right? If there’s anything you want to add @plum @FredAmir @Caulfield @Steve Ozanich, please do!